Beyazid I

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Beyazid I
Beyazid I

Beyazid I (ca 13541403; Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the 'Thunderbolt') was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. He ascended to the throne following the assassination of his father Murad I and immediately had his younger brother Yakub strangled to prevent him from staging a coup.

In revenge for the assassination of Murad in the Battle of Kosovo, Beyazid massacred his Serb prisoners. Nevertheless, he was able to conclude a treaty with the Serb leader, Stephen Bulcovic, and granted Serbia considerable autonomy. In 1391 he laid siege to Constantinople. On the demand of the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus a new crusade was organized to defeat Beyazid. In 1396, the Christian allies, under the leadership of the Hungarian King and Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, were defeated in the Battle of Nicopolis. The siege of Constantinople lasted until 1398 when the Byzantines paid a considerable tribute to break the siege.

In 1400, the Mongol warlord Timur Lenk had succeeded in rousing the local kingdoms that had been conquered by the Turks to join him in his attack on Beyazid. In the fateful Battle of Ankara, on July 20, 1402, Beyazid was captured by Timur. Some contemporary reports claimed that Timur kept Beyezid chained in a cage as a trophy. Likewise, there are many stories about Beyazid's captivity, including one that describes how Timur used him as a footstool. However, these accounts are thought to be false, as writers from Timur's court reported that Beyezid was treated well, and that Timur mourned his death. Likewise, Timur's own history with other rulers demonstrated that he was true to his word when he later claimed to have aimed at re-establishing Beyezid on the Ottoman throne. One year later, Beyazid died — some accounts claim that he committed suicide.

Preceded by:
Murad I
Ottoman Sultan Succeeded by:
Ottoman Interregnum
de:Bayezid I.

es:Beyazid I fr:Bayezid Ier he:באיזיד הראשון hu:I. Bajazid ja:バヤズィト1世 ro:Baiazid I sv:Beyazid I

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