Central heating

From Academic Kids

Central heating is standard method of keeping a house warm. When combined with other systems in order to control a building's climate the whole system may be referred to as HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning).

Central heating differs from local heating in that the heating is done in one place in the building, i.e. centrally. The resulting heat is then distributed. Central heating could refer to other systems of heating and heat distribution other than one that uses a fire or electric heat source and water as the distribution medium.

In the UK, where air conditioning in homes is rarely warranted due to its temperate climate, central heating is installed in most new housing. It is normally gas fired or electric, although more remote buildings may use Oil fired central heating which is also much more common in Ireland where gas supply is rarer.

The common components of a Central heating system are

  • Boiler - heats water in a closed water system
  • Pump - circulates the water in the closed system
  • Radiators - wall mounted panels through which the heated water passes in order to release heat into the room

Water heating

It is also normal to combine the needs of room heating with hot water heating and storage. In this case the heated water in the sealed system is allowed to flow through a heat exchanger in a hot water tank or hot water cylinder where water from the normal water supply is heated by it before being fed to hot water outlets in the house. These outlets could be hot water taps, appliances such as a washing machine or dishwasher, a gravity fed shower or a powered shower - a type of shower that pumps water but does not heat it.

History

Central heating systems were used in northern Roman cities in the 100s. Air heated by furnaces was led through empty spaces under the floors and out of pipes in the walls.

In 1716, water was first used to spread the heat. This system was used by Martin Triewald, a Swedish engineer, on a greenhouse at Newcastle upon Tyne. Bonnemain, a French architect, made its first industrial use on a coop, at Château du Pêcq, near Paris.de:Zentralheizung nl:Centrale verwarming

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