Fernando Pessoa

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Fernando Pessoa

Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (June 13, 1888 - November 30, 1935) was born in Lisbon and is seen by many as the greatest modern Portuguese author.

Contents

Biographical Overview

Fernando Antonio Nogueira Pessoa was born in Lisbon. Pessoa's father died when he was five; his brother died when he was six. Fernando's mother married the Portuguese consul in Durban, South Africa. Fernando and his family moved there; he lived in Durban until he was seventeen. Pessoa was taught in English in both Durban and Cape Town. He considered himself bilingual and bicultural.

Early on he excelled in English composition, surpassing his English peers. Pessoa moved back to Lisbon when he was 17 in order to attend university, but a student strike put an end to his studies. The young man studied privately for a year at home. He began to work as an assistant for a businessman; he was charged with writing correspondence and translating documents.

Pessoa began to write poetry in his spare time. He wrote poetry in the voice, style and manner of many fictional poets, which he called heteronyms. He published under several of these names. The heteronyms were individuals with prescribed birthdates, appearance, temperament, literary ideas, and philosophies. Pessoa ascribes the origin of these heteronyms to 'the profound streak of hysteria which is existent within me.' The heteronyms were in the last instance the means by which he gave vent to his fragmented personality.

Much of his work was published in literary magazines, especially his own, Athena. The work which many consider his masterpiece, Livro do Desassossego (The Book of Disquiet) was not published until 1982, almost 50 years after his death. Pessoa is primarily known as a poet. His best poetry was written under the heteronym Alvaro de Campos. Perhaps the strangest of the heteronyms is Alberto Caeiro.

During his lifetime he led a chiefly isolated existence. He avoided the literary world and social life. Borges called him the portuguese poet, placing him above Camoes. Pessoa himself had the ambition to become a 'Super-Camoes.' Today his eminence over Camoes is disputed. The critic Harold Bloom, in his book The Western Canon called him--along with Pablo Neruda--the most representative poet of the 20th century.

Pessoa died on November 30, 1935 in Lisbon.


For full biographical information see George Monteiro: Biography (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/bio.html); for a brief overview see Jose Augusto Seabra: Overview (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/seabra.html).

Critical Overview


Fernando Pessoa is considered the greatest portuguese poet since Camoes. Of the greatest poets of the 20th century -- Montale (Italy); Lorca (Spain); Valery (France); Yeats (Ireland); Hardy (England); Rilke (Germany); Mandelstam (Russia); Paz (Mexico); Neruda (Chile); Vallejo (Peru); Stevens; Eliot; Crane (United States) -- he remains the most strange, isolated, endearing; the saddest, most harrowing poet of the age.

Heteronyms

Pessoa remarks, how, when he was young, he was given to invent imaginary friends. They served him chiefly as conversational partners. These were no ordinary imaginary friends however; they were much more than that: they were voices or personalities at once part of himself and distinct from himself. Pessoa himself ascribes 'the mental origin' of his heteronyms to his 'organic and constant propensity toward depersonalisation and simulation,' propensities he attributed to 'the profound streak of hysteria which is existent within me.'

Of his earliest heteronyms he tells us of Charles Robert Anon and Alexander Search; these were eventually succeeded by others, among them: Alberto Caeiro, Alvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis, Bernardo Soares.

These last are his major heteronyms. Pessoa gave individual biographies to each of these voices. Pessoa defined his use of the term heteronym by distinguishing it from the term pseudonym: "A pseudonymous work is, except for the name with which it is signed, the work of an author writing as himself; a heteronymic work is by an author writing outside his own personality: it is the work of a complete individuality made up by him, just as the utterances of some character in any of his plays would be."

Pessoa summarily describes his three major heteronyms: "Caeiro has one discipline: things must be felt as they are. Ricardo Reis has another kind of discipline: things must be felt, not only as they are, but also so as to fall in with a certain ideal of classic measure and rule. In Alvaro de Campos things must simply be felt."

The reader will notice that Pessoa assigns the word 'felt' as descriptive of his heteronyms. In reading Pessoa's poetry we encounter this word (feel) in practically all of his poems; this fact, insofar as I know, has been overlooked by critics. If asked what would best describe Pessoa in two words, I would reply: he feels. It was Pessoa's tragedy that he was at once the most sensitive and lonely of poets.

This combination of strong feeling and loneliness is what I understand by 'Pessoan'. He is also the most serious of poets; he represents for me a tragic 'seriousness at life': a feeling of disgust at life so intense that it almost makes one want to laugh, and yet with the flat truth smacked in our face, that it is impossible to. When we read him alongside any other poet this 'seriousness' makes itself evident. We feel the anguish of other poets to be less real, because in reading Pessoa we encounter a desolation unparalleled. We feel that other poets are only playing at anguish, at--what Pessoa lived.

What follows is an exposition of each of the three major heteronyms--Caeiro, Reis, Campos-- and Fernando Pessoa himself.

Alberto Caeiro

I have no ambitions and no desires.
To be a poet is not my ambition,
It's my way of being alone.

--Alberto Caeiro: 'The Keeper of Sheep'

Alberto Caeiro is Pessoa's first great heteronym. Caeiro is perhaps my favorite heteronym of the three; although, it is true, I recognize Alvaro de Campos poetic achievement as superior-- Caeiro is nonetheless the most endearing.

The best summarization of Caeiro is given by Pessoa himself: "He sees things with the eyes only, not with the mind. He does not let any thoughts arise when he looks at a flower...the only thing a stone tells him is that it has nothing at all to tell him...this way of looking at a stone may be described as the totally unpoetic way of looking at it. The stupendous fact about Caeiro is that out of this sentiment, or rather, absense of sentiment, he makes poetry."

In a letter written to his friend Adolfo Casais Monteiro, Pessoa described the birth of this heteronym: "[It] was March 8th 1914--I approached a high chest of drawers, and, taking a sheet of paper, I began to write, standing up, as I always write whenever I can. And I wrote thirty or so poems at a stroke in a kind of ecstatic trance, the nature of which I will not be able to define to you. It was the day of triumph in my life and I shall never succeed in living another like that. I opened with the title 'The Keeper of the Flock' ('O Guardador de Rebanhos'); and what followed was that someone emerged from within me, and whom I christened that very moment Alberto Caeiro. Forgive me for the absurdity of the following sentence: my master emerged from within me."

What makes Caeiro such an original poet is the manner he apprehends reality. He does not question anything whatsoever; he calmly accepts the world as it is. Caeiro is indeed a child of sorts: the recurrent themes, as a critic notes, to be found in nearly all Caeiro's poems are wide-eyed child-like wonder at the infinite variety of nature. He is free of metaphysical entanglements (as Campos and Pessoa himself are). Central to his world-view is the idea that in the world around us, all is surface: things are precisely what they seem, there is no hidden meaning anywhere.

He manages thus to free himself from the anxieties that batter his peers; for Caeiro 'things simply exist and we have no right to credit them with more than that.' Our unhappiness, he tells us, springs from our unwillingness to limit our horizons. Caeiro in this sense is wise: he attains happiness by not questioning, and by thus avoiding doubts and uncertainties.

For Caeiro apprehended reality solely through his eyes, through his senses. What he teaches us is that if we want to be happy we ought to do the same. Octavio Paz called him 'the innocent poet'; true, he is innocent by our standards, and yet: does not his wisdom--experience-- consist precisely in his 'innocence'? Paz made a shrewd remark on the heteronyms: "In each are particles of negation or unreality. Reis believes in form, Campos in sensation, Pessoa in symbols. Caeiro doesn't believe in anything. He exists."

Caeiro is a wonderful invention; is there a poet before him who thinks, or rather, sees as he does? Poetry before Caeiro was essentially interpretative; what poets did was to offer us an interpretation of their perceived surroundings; Caeiro does not do this: instead, he attempts to communicate his senses, his feelings to us, without any interpretation whatsoever.

Caeiro teaches us to apprehend Nature differently; he asks of us, simply, to see what is before us. Poets before him would have made use of intricate metaphors to describe what was before them; not so Caeiro: his self-appointed task is to bring these objects to the reader's attention, as directly and simply as possible. Caeiro sought a direct experience of the objects before him.

It does not surprise us that Caeiro has been called an anti-intellectual, anti-Romantic, anti-subjectivist, anti-metaphysical...an anti-poet, by critics; Caeiro simply--is. He is in this sense very unlike his creator Fernando Pessoa: Pessoa was besieged by metaphysical uncertainties; these were, to a large extent, the cause of his unhappiness; not so Caeiro: his attitude is anti-metaphysical; he avoided uncertainties precisely by clinging single-mindedly to a certainty: his belief that there is no meaning behind things. Things, for him, simply--are.

Caeiro represents a primal vision of reality, of things. He is the pagan incarnate. Indeed Caeiro, Richard Zenith tells us, was not simply a pagan but 'paganism itself'.

The critic Jane M. Sheets, sees the insurgence of Caeiro--who was Pessoa's first heteronym-- as essential in founding the later poetic personas: "By means of this artless yet affirmative anti-poet, Caeiro, a short-lived but vital member of his coterie, Pessoa acquired the base of an experienced and universal poetic vision. After Caeiro's tenets had been established, the avowedly poetic voices of Campos, Reis and Pessoa himself spoke with greater assurance."

Ricardo Reis

As long as I feel the full breeze in my hair
And see the sun shining bright on the leaves,
I will not ask for more.
What better thing could destiny give me
Than the sensual passing of life in moments
Of ignorance like this?

--Ricardo Reis


Pessoa's next heteronym was Ricardo Reis. He is, to my mind, the weakest of the three. His genius is however clearly manifested in a handful of poems. He appears weak only in juxtaposition with Caeiro, Campos, and Pessoa-himself.

Reis sums up his philosophy of life: he admonishes: 'see life from a distance. never question it. there's nothing it can tell you.' Like Caeiro, Reis defers from questioning life; his philosophy entails the avoidance of pain; man for him should seek tranquillity and calm above all else. Richard Zenith notes Reis' recurrent themes: 'the brevity of life, the vanity of wealth and struggle, the joy of simple pleasures, patience in time of trouble, and avoidance of extremes.'

He is in a sense a passive poet: his philosophy is one of resignation. Is his stance a product of weariness? He lacks the joviality which characterizes Caeiro. Reis's poetry, as noted by a critic, is austere and cerebral. He is detached, intellectual, like his creator Fernando Pessoa. Pessoa's heteronyms in one way or another represent aspects of the poet himself. Reis represents Pessoa's wish for measure and sobriety; a world free of troubles and respite.

Reis, a pagan, is decidedly un-Christian: he casts off the fetters of Christianity which he feels encumber his existence; instead he chooses to worship the ancient Greek gods. He chants: 'Your dead gods tell me nothing I need to know. Without love or hatred I dismiss the crucifix from my way of being.'

Reis is a modern pagan who urges one to seize the day and accept fate with tranquility. 'Wise is the one who does not seek', he says; and continues: 'the seeker will find in all things the abyss, and doubt in himself.' In this sense Reis shares essential affinities with Caeiro.

The essential difference between the two is that while Caeiro's predominant attitude is that of joviality, Reis is marked by melancholy; he is saddened by the impermanence of all things. And while it is true that Caeiro can be sad; his is of a different kind. 'My sadness,' Caeiro says, 'is a comfort for it is natural and right.'

Alvaro de Campos

Não sou nada.
Nunca serei nada.
Não posso querer ser nada.
À parte isso, tenho em mim todos os sonhos do mundo.


(I'm nothing.
I'll always be nothing.
I can't want to be something.
But I have in me all the dreams of the world.)

--Alvaro de Campos: 'Tabacaria' ('The Tobacco Shop')

Alvaro de Campos is undoubtedly Pessoa's greatest heteronym. 'Campos,' as Zenith notes, 'was the most substantial of Pessoa's heteronyms and the one closest to his true heart and person...he was in many ways a larger-than-life version of his creator.' Of the three heteronyms he is the one who feels the strongest; his motto was 'to feel everything in every way.' 'The best way to travel,' he wrote, 'is to feel.'

Campos manifests two contrary impulses: on the one hand: a feverish desire to be everything and everyone, declaring that 'in every corner of my soul stands an altar to a different god.' The second impulse is toward a state of isolation and a sense of nothingness.

Of the first of these impulses: Campos is possessed of the Whitmanian desire to 'contain multitudes'. Critics have noted how 'Whitman's (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walt_whitman) influence is apparent in part in the sheer vitality of these poems, in the zest for experience which they express.' Indeed Campos has in many respects outdone his precursor in 'containing multitudes': it seems that the entire cosmos is not enough for him to 'contain'. After chanting all the places, all the ports, all the sights he's seen.... 'Of all this,' he remarks, 'which is so much, is nothing next to what I want.'

Campos' poems represent the apotheosis of Pessoan anguish. His poems reflect an existentially anguished search for meaning. His poems are at once nostalgic, self-ironic; here despair, terror, the self questioning of the poet are laid bare. The poems as a critic remarks, evoke an 'atmosphere of unreality' this state is created 'by insistence on denial, negativity, absence, loss.'

One of the poet's constant preoccupations is that of identity: he does not know who he is. The problem, it seems, is not that he doesn't know what to be; on the contrary: he wants to be too much, everything; short of achieving this he despairs. Unlike Caeiro, who asks nothing of life, he asks too much. In his poetic meditation 'Tobacco Shop' he asks:

How should I know what I'll be, I who don't know what I am?
Be what I think? But I think of being so many things!

Campos can be manic-depressive, exultant, violent, dynamic; he quests for nowhere and everywhere at once. His is an agonized doubt at the wasting of life-- at life, everything. For a critic he is 'par excellence the poet appalled by the emptiness of his own existence, lethargic, lacking in will-power, seeking inspiration, or at all events finding it, in semi-conscious states, in the twilight world between waking and sleeping, in dreams and in drunkenness.'

Fernando Pessoa-himself

The poet is a faker
Who's so good at his act
He even fakes the pain
Of pain he feels in fact

--Fernando Pessoa-himself: Autopsychography


'Fernando Pessoa-himself' is not the 'real' Fernando Pessoa. Like Caeiro, Reis and Campos-- Pessoa-himself embodies only aspects of the poet. As will be seen Fernando Pessoa's personality is not stamped in any given voice; his personality rather is diffused through the heteronyms. For this reason 'Fernando Pessoa-himself' stands apart from the poet proper.

In reading the poetry of Pessoa-himself we shall realize that he shares many essential affinities with his peers, Caeiro and Campos in particular. Lines crop up in his poems that can as well be ascribed to Campos or Caeiro. It is useful to keep this in mind as we read this exposition.

The critic Leland Guyer sums up Pessoa-himself: "the poetry of the orthonymic Fernando Pessoa normally possesses a measured, regular form and appreciation of the musicality of verse. It takes on intellectual issues, and it is marked by concern with dreams, the imagination and mystery."

Richard Zenith calls Pessoa-himself '[Pessoa's] most intellectual and analytic poetic persona.' Like Alvaro de Campos, Pessoa-himself was afflicted with an acute identity crisis. Pessoa-himself has been described as indecisive and doubt plagued, as restless. Like Campos he can be melancholic, weary, resigned. The strength of Pessoa-himself's poetry rests in his ability to suggest a sense of loss; of sorrow for what can never be.

A constant theme in Pessoa's poetry is Tedio, or Tedium. The dictionary defines this word simply as 'a condition of being tedious; tediousness or boredom.' This definition does not sufficiently encompass the peculiar brand of tedium experienced by Pessoa-himself. His is more than simple boredom: it is a world weariness and disgust with life; a sense of the finality of failure; of the impossibility of having anything to want.

'The impossibility of having anything to want': this is Tedio for Pessoa-himself. It is one thing to have nothing to do or want, but to be deprived even of this...is tedium. Kierkegaard tells how if asked to choose between the two; between a perpetual state of boredom, or eternal bodily pain; he would choose, he says, the latter. Pessoa-himself, I believe, would undoubtedly concur with the melancholy Dane.

Conclusion

As a critic has noted, Pessoa brings to mind other great pessimists (although to call him that is a vast over-simplification): Schopenhauer... He also reminds one of other great solitaries: Kierkegaard, chief among them. He himself believed to have had close affinities with that romantic, sensitive, misantropic genius: Jean-Jacques_Rousseau. A critic has recently compared him to Montaigne.

"Contradiction is the essence of the universe," Pessoa once wrote. Pessoa seems to have lived this apothegm. He was indeed a living contradiction. The heteronyms were for Pessoa ultimately vehicles which allowed him to vent the contradiction that was his life. I cannot think of any other poet in the 20th century which manifested this anxiety to such an extent as Pessoa did.

Selected Works

Book of Disquiet, tr. Richard Zenith (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0141183047/qid=1110874786/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/002-3419556-9602429)

Fernando Pessoa & Co: Selected Poems (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0802136273/qid=1110874786/sr=2-2/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_2/002-3419556-9602429)

The Selected Prose of Fernando Pessoa (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0802139140/qid=1110874786/sr=2-5/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_5/002-3419556-9602429)

A Centenary Pessoa (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0415969611/qid=1110874786/sr=2-7/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_7/002-3419556-9602429)

Poems of Fernando Pessoa, tr. Honig & Brown (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0872863425/qid=1110874786/sr=2-3/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_3/002-3419556-9602429)

Fernando Pessoa (Pocket Archives Series): Photographs (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/2850255386/qid=1110875053/sr=1-28/ref=sr_1_28/002-3419556-9602429?v=glance&s=books)


Selected Links

Português
Instituto Camoes: Fernando Pessoa (http://www.instituto-camoes.pt/escritores/pessoa.htm)
Casa Fernando Pessoa (http://www.casafernandopessoa.com)
Jornal de Poesia (http://www.secrel.com.br/jpoesia/pessoa.html)

English
Kirjasto Biography (http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/pessoa.htm)

Español
Poesias Coligidas de Fernando Pessoa (http://www.fpessoa.com.ar)


Selected Critical Essays

George Monteiro: Biography (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/bio.html) John Gray: Assault on Authorship (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/gray.html) Harold Bloom: Fernando Pessoa (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/bloom.html) Jonathan Griffin: Introduction (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/griffin.html) Jose Augusto Seabra: Overview (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/seabra.html) Fernando Pessoa: Origin of Heteronyms (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/letter.html) Michael Wood: Mod & Great (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/wood.html) John Hollander: Quadrophenia (http://www.geocities.com/idol911_4life/hollander.html)


Criticism

English:

Books:

Ironic multiplicity : Fernando's "Pessoas" suspended in Kierkegaardian irony / Author: Hale, Michelle Pulsipher. Publication: 2004

Atlantic poets : Fernando Pessoa's turn in Anglo-American modernism / Author: Santos, Maria Irene Ramalho Sousa. Publication: Hanover : Dartmouth College : University Press of New England, 2003

Pessoa's Alberto Caeiro. Publication: [Dartmouth, Mass.] : Center for Portuguese Studies and Culture, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2000

Modernism's gambit : Poetry problems and chess stratagems in Fernando Pessoa and Jorge Luis Borges / Author: Peña, Karen Patricia. Publication: 2000

An introduction to Fernando Pessoa : Modernism and the paradoxes of authorship / Author: Sadlier, Darlene J.Publication: Gainesville : University Press of Florida, 1998

A centenary Pessoa / Author: Pessoa, Fernando, 1888-1935.; Lisboa, Eugénio.; Taylor, L. C.Publication: Manchester [England] : Carcanet in association with the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the Instituto Camões, the Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro, 1997

Fernando Pessoa : Voices of a nomadic soul / Author: Kotowicz, Zbigniew. Publication: London : Menard ; Berkeley, Calif. : Distributed by SPD, 1996

The Continuing presence of Walt Whitman : the life after the life / Author: Martin, Robert K.,Publication: Iowa City : University of Iowa Press, 1992

Fernando Pessoa : the bilingual portuguese poet / Author: Terlinden-Villepin, Anne, 1951-Publication: Bruxelles : Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis, 1990

Three persons on one : a centenary tribute to Fernando Pessoa / Author: McGuirk, Bernard.Publication: Nottingham, England : University of Nottingham, 1988

Fernando Pessoa, a galaxy of poets, 1888-1935. Author: Pessoa, Fernando,; Carvalho, Maria Helena Rodrigues de. Publication: [S.l. : s.n.], 1985

Fernando Pessoa's The mad fiddler : a critical study / Author: Terlinden-Villepin, Anne, 1951- Publication: 1984

Spatial imagery of enclosure in the poetry of Fernando Pessoa / Author: Guyer, Leland Robert. Publication: 1979

The role of the other in the poetry of Fernando Pessoa Author: Jones, Marilyn Scarantino. Publication: 1974

Selected Poems of Fernando Pessoa / Author: Rickard, Peter., 1972

Three Twentieth-Century Portuguese Poets / Author: Parker M., John., 1960


Articles:

(The following articles are located on the Gale website (Galenet.com) --note: password is required for access. You can obtain a password by asking your public librarian...More essays can be located in the Gale Criticism Anthologies; these are also found in your public library.)


Wood, Michael, "Mod and Great" in The New York Review of Books, Vol. XIX, No. 4, September 21, 1972, pp. 19-22.

Hollander, John, "Quadrophenia," in New Republic, September 7, 1987, pp. 33-6.
Eberstadt, Fernanda, "Proud of His Obscurity," in The New York Times Book Review, Vol 96, September 1, 1991, p.26.

Dyer, Geoff, "Heteronyms" inThe New Statesman, Vol. 4, December 6, 1991, p. 46.
Haberly, David T., "Fernando Pessoa: Overview" in Reference Guide to World Literature, 2nd ed., edited by Lesley Henderson, St. James Press, 1995.

Rosenthal, David H., "Unpredictable Passions," in The New York Times Book Review, December 13, 1987, p. 32.

Sheets, Jane M., "Fernando Pessoa as Anti-Poet: Alberto Caeiro," in Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. XLVI, No. 1, January 1969, pp. 39-47. Reprinted in Poetry Criticism, Vol. 20.

Severino, Alex, "Fernando Pessoa's Legacy: The Presença and After," in World Literature Today, Vol. 53, No. 1, Winter, 1979, pp. 5-9. Reprinted in Poetry Criticism, Vol. 20.

Sousa, Ronald W., "The Structure of Pessoa's Mensagem," in Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. LIX, No. 1, January 1982, pp. 58-66. Reprinted in Poetry Criticism, Vol. 20.

Guyer, Leland, "Fernando Pessoa and the Cubist Perspective," in Hispania, Vol. 70, No. 1, March 1987, pp. 73-8. Reprinted in Poetry Criticism, Vol. 20.

Cruz, Anne J., "Masked Rhetoric: Contextuality in Fernando Pessoa's Poems," in Romance Notes, Vol. XXIX, No. 1, Fall, 1988, pp. 55-60. Reprinted in Poetry Criticism, Vol. 20.


Português:

Pessoa / Author: Carvalho, António Carlos. Publication: Lisboa: Pergaminho, 1999

O coração do texto = Le coeur du texte : novos ensaios pessoanos /author: Seabra, José Augusto.; Galhoz, Maria Aliete Dores. Publication: Lisboa : Edições Cosmos, 1996

Para compreender Fernando Pessoa : uma aproximação a Fernando Pessoa e heteronimos / Author: Pais, Amélia Pinto. Publication: Porto : Areal Editores, 1996

Pessoa inédito / Author: Pessoa, Fernando, 1888-1935.; Lopes, Maria Teresa Rita. Publication: Lisboa : Livros Horizonte, 1993

A vivência do tempo em Fernando Pessoa e outros ensaios pessoanos / Author: Matos, Maria Vitalina Leal de, 1939-publication: Lisboa, Portugal : Editorial Verbo, 1993

Literatura & heteronímia :sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Diogo, Américo António Lindeza.Publication: Pontevedra-Braga : Irmandades da Fala de Galiza e Portugal, 1992

Pessoa por conhecer, 2 volumes/ Author: Lopes., 1990

Fernando Pessoa espelho e a esfinge / Author: Moisés, Massaud. Publication: São Paulo : Editora Cultrix : Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, 1988

Nos passos de Pessoa :ensaios / Author: Mourão-Ferreira, David, 1927- Publication: Lisboa : Editorial Presença, 1988

Estudos sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Crespo, Angel, 1926- Publication: Lisboa, Portugal : Teorema, 1988

Fernando Pessoa, o desconhecido de si mesmo / Author: Paz, Octavio, 1914-; Da Costa, Luís Alves.Publication: Lisboa : Vega, 1988

Fernando Pessoa: os trezentos e outros ensaios / Author: Centeno, Y. K. Publication: Lisboa : Editorial Presença, 1988

Microleituras de Alvaro de Campos :e outras investigações pessoanas / Author: Coêlho, Joaquim-Francisco, 1938-Publication: Lisboa : Publicações Dom Quixote, 1987

Compreender Pessoa / Author: Vilhena, Ramires.Publication: Lisboa : Vega, 1986

O essencial sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Lancastre, Maria José de. Publication: [Lisbon] : INCM, 1985

Fernando Pessoa :aquém do eu, além do outro / Author: Perrone-Moisés, Leyla.Publication: São Paulo, SP, Brasil : Martins Fontes, 1982

Estudos sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Lind, Georg Rudolf. Publication: [Lisbon] : Impr. Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1981

Pessoa e Camões : três análises divergentes / Author: Alves, José Edil de Lima, 1943-publication: Porto Alegre : Editora Movimento, 1979

O constelado Fernando Pessoa / Author: Quesado, José Clécio Basílio. Publication: Rio de Janeiro : Imago Editora, 1976

Um Fernando Pessoa / Author: Silva, Agostinho da, 1906-; Pessoa, Fernando,Publication: Lisboa : Guimarães Editores, 1959

Introduction a la poesie de Fernando Pessoa / Author: Casais Monteiro, Adolfo., 1938


Espaňol:

El silencio de los poetas : Pessoa, Pizarnik, Celan, Michaux / Autor: Cohen, Sara / Publicacion: Buenos Aires : Editorial Biblos, 2002

Con Fernando Pessoa / Author: Crespo, Angel / Publicacion: Madrid : Huerga & Fierro, 2000

Un baúl lleno de gente : Escritos sobre Pessoa / Autores: Tabucchi, Antonio,; Ladrón de Guevara, Pedro Luis. /Publicacion: Madrid : Huerga & Fierro, 1997

Identidad y alteridad en Fernando Pessoa y Antonio Machado : / Autor: Lourenço, António Apolinário. / Publicacion: Salamanca : Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1997

Fernando Pessoa en palabras y en imágenes / Autores: Pessoa, Fernando,; Llardent, José Antonio. / Publicacion: [Madrid] : Ediciones Siruela : Ministerio de Cultura, 1995

La sensibilidad finisecular : Joyce, Woolf, Pessoa / Autor: Alzuru, Pedro / Publicacion: Mérida, Venezuela : Consejo de Publicaciones, ULA, 1993

El texto íntimo : Rilke, Kafka y Pessoa / Autor: Castro Flórez, Fernando / Publicacion: Madrid : Tecnos, 1993

Pessoa, la respuesta de la palabra / Autor: López Meléndez, Teódulo/ Publicacion: Caracas : Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1992

Fernando Pessoa, un místico sin fe : una aproximación al pensamiento heteronímico / Autor: Ordóñez, Andrés / Publicacion: México, D.F. : Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1991

Díptico pessoano / Autor: García Martín, José Luis / Publicacion: Mérida : Editora Regional de Extremadura, 1990

Fernando Pessoa : identidad y diferencia / Autor: Vázquez Medel, Manuel Angel / pblication: Sevilla : Galaxia, 1988

Estudios sobre Pessoa / Autor: Crespo, Angel / Publicacion: Barcelona, España : Bruguera, 1984

Fernando Pessoa / Autor: García Martín, José Luis/ Publicacion: Madrid : Ediciones Júcar, 1983de:Fernando Pessoa es:Fernando Pessoa eo:Fernando PESSOA fr:Fernando Pessoa is:Fernando Pessoa it:Fernando Pessoa nl:Fernando Pessoa pt:Fernando Pessoa

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