From Academic Kids

Grappling is an element of many martial arts, and consists of techniques for handling the opponent in which the opponent is held or gripped rather than struck. This includes maneuvers to obtain a strong position (for example guard or mount), takedowns, various pins, joint locks, and pain locks. Chinese martial arts have a system related to grappling known as chin na which involves the use of acupressure points to obtain locks or to otherwise incapacitate an opponent. Sport grappling normally excludes techniques such as biting and pinching. Grappling may be engaged in either standing or on the ground, although many standing techniques are takedowns or throws, and used for forcing the opponent to an unfavourable position on the ground. Throws are considered part of grappling training in some martial arts, whereas other arts consider them extensions of strikes, kicks or wrestling. Other arts train to set up their throws from any one of, or combination of, those modes of fighting.

When unskilled fighters get embroiled in combat, a very common instinctive reaction is to attempt to slow the situation down by grabbing the opponent and holding them still. As a result, grappling happens very often between unskilled fighters. Of course, skilled fighters can grapple much more effectively and may choose to grapple with an opponent. With sufficient skill, grappling offers the possibility of controlling an opponent without injuring them, so most police staff receive some training in grappling. Moreover, it is possible to design rules making grappling into a relatively safe sport; this is more difficult with other kinds of fighting.

Grappling is notably not a distinct martial art, but a mode of fighting used by many different martial arts artound the world, just as much as striking in and of itself is not a complete martial art, but one mode of fighting. Many martial arts contain grappling training, although the degree to which it is emphasised varies. Judo, wrestling and Brazilian jiu-jitsu focus primarily on grappling techniques, whereas boxing, karate and Muay Thai contain practically no grappling. Among the styles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan, the Wu style is best known for its soft style grappling (see pushing hands). Some martial arts have their own name for grappling; for example, in Eskrima, grappling is normally called Dumog.

Chinese martial arts, Aikido and some Eskrima systems practice grappling while one or both participants is armed. This practice is significantly more dangerous than unarmed grappling, and generally requires a great deal of training.

Many sports that are derived from martial arts have rules which forbid grappling (for example in Western fencing, boxing or savate competition, when competitors become too close and they "clinch" or grab each other at all the referee immediately stops the fight). This is generally done to prevent injuries as much as to encourage practitioners to focus on other aspects of the match such as accuracy with the sword, punching or kicking, which are deemed more controllable or more id:Pergumulan


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