List of Emperors of the Qing Dynasty

From Academic Kids

The Qing Dynasty was founded as the "Later Jin Dynasty" in 1616, and changed its name to "Qing" in 1636. It lasted until 1912. In China proper, the Qing dynasty succeeded the Ming Dynasty in 1644 and was finally toppled in a revolution in 1911, although the last emperor did not officially abdicate to make way for the new Republic of China until early 1912.

Given name1 Posthumous name2
(short form)
Temple name2 Reign name
Chinese, Manchu
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Nurhaci
努爾哈赤
pinyin: Nǔ'ěrhāch
Gāod
高帝
Tizǔ
太祖
Tiānmng
天命
Abkai fulingga
1616-16263 Nurhaci
Hong Taiji4
皇太極
pinyin: Hungtij
Wnd
文帝
Tizōng
太宗
Tiāncōng
天聰
Abkai sure
1627-1636;
Chngd
崇德
Wesihun erdemungge
1636-1643
1626-1643 Hong Taiji
Fln
福臨
Zhāngd
章帝
Shzǔ
世祖
Shnzh
順治
Ijishūn dasan
1643-16615 Shunzhi Emperor
Xuny
玄燁
Rnd
仁帝
Shngzǔ
聖祖
Kāngxī
康熙
Elhe taifin
1661-1722 Kangxi Emperor
Ynzhēn
胤禛
Xind
憲帝
Shzōng
世宗
Yōngzhng
雍正
Hūwaliyasun tob
1722-1735 Yongzheng Emperor
Hngl
弘曆
Chnd
純帝
Gāozōng
高宗
Qinlng
乾隆
Abkai wehiyehe
1735-1796
(died 1799)6
Qianlong Emperor
Yngyǎn
顒琰
Rud
睿帝
Rnzōng
仁宗
Jiāqng
嘉慶
Saicungga fengšen
1796-1820 Jiaqing Emperor
Mnnng
旻寧
Chngd
成帝
Xuānzōng
宣宗
Doguāng
道光
Doro eldengge
1820-1850 Daoguang Emperor
Yzhǔ
奕詝
Xiǎnd
顯帝
Wnzōng
文宗
Xinfēng
咸豐
Gubci elgiyengge
1850-1861 Xianfeng Emperor
Zǎichn
載淳
Yd
毅帝
Mzōng
穆宗
Tngzh
同治
Yooningga dasan
1861-18757 Tongzhi Emperor
Zǎitin
載湉
Jǐngd
景帝
Dzōng
德宗
Guāngx
光緒
Badarangga doro
1875-19087 Guangxu Emperor
Pǔy
溥儀
also known as Henry
Xnd 8
遜帝
None given 9 Xuāntǒng
宣統
Gehungge yoso
1908-192410
(died 1967)
Puyi
1 The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.
2 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.
3 Nurhaci founded the Jin () or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.
4 Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).
5 The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.
6 The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
7 The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.
8 Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Pu-yi.
9 In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Pu-yi. Posthumous name: Mindi (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). It remains to be seen whether these names will be accepted by the Chinese public.
10 The Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, and the last emperor, Pu-yi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. However, that same day the Republic of China granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Pu-yi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Pu-yi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic of China. Pu-yi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Pu-yi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Pu-yi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932-1934), then the puppet emperor of the same under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934-1945).

See also

Missing image
LongPao.JPG
A dragon robe for a Qing dynasty emperor

de:Kaiser der Qing-Dynastie

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