Pennsylvania Dutchified English

From Academic Kids

Pennsylvania Dutchified English is a dialect of English that has been influenced by Pennsylvania German. It is largely spoken in the south central area of Pennsylvania, both by people who are monolingual (in English) and bilingual (in Pennsylvania German and English). It differs from standard American English in various ways. Some of its hallmark features include widespread devoicing of obstruents, the use of certain vowel variants in specific phonological contexts, the use of Pennsylvania German verb and noun stems in word construction, specific intonation patterns for questions, special placement of prepositional phrases in sentences, the use of "ain't" and "not" as question tags, the use of "still" as a habitual verbal marker, etc.

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