Portuguese verb conjugation

From Academic Kids

In Portuguese there are three conjugations. You can distinguish them through the ending of the infinitive of the verbs:

  • Verbs ending in -ar belong to the first conjugation (e.g. dar, lavar, matar, ladrar);
  • Verbs ending in -er belong to the second conjugation (e.g. correr, comer, colher);
  • Verbs ending in -ir belong to the third conjugation (e.g. partir, ir, destruir, urdir);
  • The verb Pôr(verb pôr from latim ponere'. poer from old protuguese) and its compounds belong to the second conjugation. This includes the verbs: depôr, compôr, propôr, among many others.

The verbs can be conjugated in various categories:

  • Infinitivo (Infinitive)- like English 'to do'.
  • Gerúndio(Gerund)- like English 'doing'.
  • Particípio Passado (Past participle)- like English 'done'.
  • Infinitivo Pessoal (Personal infinitive)- Unique to Portuguese; an infinitive with the person and number of the agent expressed.
  • Indicativo (Indicative)- like English 'do' or 'does'.
  • Condicional (Conditional)- like English 'would do'.
  • Conjuntivo (Subjunctive)- generally indicates that an unreal or unlikely situation.
  • Imperativo (Imperative)- like English 'do!'.

Second person plural forms are obsolete. Second person singular forms are not used in most of Brazil. The synthetic pluperfect forms listed below are used only in the literary language.

Contents

First conjugation (cantar)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: cantar
    • Gerund: cantando
    • Past participle: cantado
    • Personal infinitives: cantar, cantares, cantar, cantarmos, cantardes, cantarem
  • Indicative
    • Present: canto, cantas, canta, cantamos, cantais, cantam
    • Imperfect: cantava, cantavas, cantava, cantávamos, cantáveis, cantavam
    • Preterite: cantei, cantaste, cantou, cantámos (EP) or cantamos (BP), cantaste, cantaram
    • Pluperfect: cantara, cantaras, cantara, cantáramos, cantáreis, cantaram
    • Future: cantarei, cantarás, cantará, cantaremos, cantareis, cantarão
  • Conditional
    • Present:cantaria, cantarias, cantaria, cantaríamos, cantaríeis, cantariam
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: cante, cantes, cante, cantemos, canteis, cantem
    • Imperfect: cantasse, cantasses, cantasse, cantássemos, cantásseis, cantassem
    • Future: cantar, cantares, cantar, cantarmos, cantardes, cantarem
  • Imperative
    • canta (tu), cante (você), cantemos (nós), cantai (vós), cantem (vocês)

Second conjugation (comer)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: comer
    • Gerund: comendo
    • Past participle: comido
    • Personal infinitives: comer, comeres, comer, comermos, comerdes, comerem
  • Indicative
    • Present: como, comes, come, comemos, comeis, comem
    • Imperfect: comia, comias, comia, comíamos, comíeis, comiam
    • Preterite: comi, comeste, comeu, comemos, comestes, comeram
    • Pluperfect: comera, comeras, comera, comêramos, comêreis, comeram
    • Future: comerei, comerás, comerá, comeremos, comereis, comerão
    • Conditional: comeria, comerias, comeria, comeríamos, comeríeis, comeriam
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: coma, comas, coma, comamos, comais, comam
    • Imperfect: comesse, comesses, comesse, comêssemos, comêsseis, comessem
    • Future: comer, comeres, comer, comermos, comerdes, comerem
  • Imperative
    • come (tu), coma (você), comamos (nós), comei (vós), comam (vocês)

Third conjugation (partir)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: partir
    • Gerund: partindo
    • Past participle: partido
    • Personal infinitives: partir, partires, partir, partirmos, partirdes, partirem
  • Indicative
    • Present: parto, partes, parte, partimos, partis, partem
    • Imperfect: partia, partias, partia, partíamos, partíeis, partiam
    • Preterite: parti, partiste, partiu, partimos, partistes, partiram
    • Pluperfect: partira, partiras, partira, partíramos, partíreis, partiram
    • Future: partirei, partirás, partirá, partiremos, partireis, partirão
    • Conditional: partiria, partirias, partiria, partiríamos, partiríeis, partiriam
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: parta, partas, parta, partamos, partais, partam
    • Imperfect: partisse, partisses, partisse, partíssemos, partísseis, partissem
    • Future: partir, partires, partir, partirmos, partirdes, partirem
  • Imperative
    • parte (tu), parta (você), partamos (nós), parti (vós), partam (vocês)

Quick reference

PresentSubjunctiveNon-Finite F.
Per.PresentPreterit PerfectPreterit ImperfectPreterit PluperfectPresentPreterit ImperfectInfinitive P.
Eu -o -ei
-i
-i
-ava
-ia
-ia
-ara
-era
-ira
-e
-a
-a
-asse
-esse
-isse
-ar
-er
-ir
Tu -as
-es
-es
-aste
-este
-iste
-avas
-ias
-ias
-aras
-eras
-iras
-es
-as
-as
-asses
-esses
-isses
-ares
-eres
-ires
Ele -a
-e
-e
-ou
-eu
-iu
-ava
-ia
-ia
-ara
-era
-ira
-e
-a
-a
-asse
-esse
-isse
-ar
-er
-ir
Nós -amos
-emos
-imos
-ámos (EP) or -amos (BP)
-emos
-imos
-ávamos
-íamos
-íamos
-áramos
-êramos
-íramos
-emos
-amos
-amos
-ássemos
-êssemos
-íssemos
-armos
-ermos
-irmos
Vós -ais
-eis
-is
-astes
-estes
-istes
-áveis
-íeis
-íeis
-áreis
-êreis
-íreis
-eis
-ais
-ais
-ásseis
-êsseis
-ísseis
-ardes
-erdes
-irdes
Eles -am
-em
-em
-aram
-eram
-iram
-avam
-iam
-iam
-aram
-eram
-iram
-em
-am
-am
-assem
-essem
-issem
-arem
-erem
-irem

  </table>

<tr style="background-color: rgb(96,96,162); color: white; text-align: center;"><td colspan="3">Non-Finite Forms <tr style="background-color: rgb(96,96,162); color: white;"><td>Infinitive Impersonal<td>Past Participle<td>Present Participle <tr style="background-color: rgb(255,234,202);"> <td>-ar
-er
-ir <td>-ado
-ido
-ido <td>-ando
-endo
-indo </table>

haver

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: haver
    • Gerund: havendo
    • Past participle: havido
    • Personal infinitives: haver, haveres, haver, havermos, haverdes, haverem
  • Indicative
    • Present: hei, hás, há, havemos, haveis, hão (many portuguese's people say há-des and that is not correct. The correct form to say it is hás-de)
    • Imperfect: havia, havias, havia, havíamos, havíeis, haviam
    • Preterite: houve, houveste, houve, houvemos, houvestes, houveram
    • Pluperfect: houvera, houveras, houvera, houvéramos, houvéreis, houveram
    • Future: haverei, haverás, haverá, haveremos, havereis, haverão
    • Conditional: haveria, haverias, haveria, haveríamos, haveríeis, haveriam
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: haja, hajas, haja, hajamos, hajais, hajam
    • Imperfect: houvesse, houvesses, houvesse, houvéssemos, houvésseis, houvessem
    • Future: houver, houveres, houver, houvermos, houverdes, houverem
  • Imperative
    • há (tu), haja (você), hajamos (nós), havei (vós), hajam (vocês)

ter

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: ter
    • Gerund: tendo
    • Past participle: tido
    • Personal infinitives: ter, teres, ter, termos, terd, terem
  • Indicative
    • Present: tenho, tens, tem, temos, tendes, têm
    • Imperfect: tinha, tinhas, tinha, tínhamos, tínheis, tinham
    • Preterite: tive, tiveste, teve, tivemos, tivestes, tiveram
    • Pluperfect: tivera, tiveras, tivera, tivéramos, tivéreis, tiveram
    • Future: terei, terás, terá, teremos, tereis, terão
    • Conditional: teria, terias, teria, teríamos, teríeis, teriam
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: tenha, tenhas, tenha, tenhamos, tenhais, tenham
    • Imperfect: tivesse, tivesses, tivesse, tivéssemos, tivésseis, tivessem
    • Future: tiver, tiveres, tiver, tivermos, tiverdes, tiverem
  • Imperative
    • tem (tu), tenha (você), tenhamos (nós), tende (vós), tenham (vocês)

ser

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: ser
    • Gerund: sendo
    • Past participle: sido
    • Personal infinitives: ser, seres, ser, sermos, serdes, serem
  • Indicative
    • Present: sou, és, é, somos, sois, são
    • Imperfect: era, eras, era, éramos, éreis, eram
    • Preterite: fui, foste, foi, fomos, fostes, foram
    • Pluperfect: fora, foras, fora, fôramos, fôreis, foram
    • Future: serei, serás, será, seremos, sereis, serão
    • Conditional: seria, serias, seria, seríamos, seríeis, seriam
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: seja, sejas, seja, sejamos, sejais, sejam
    • Imperfect: fosse, fosses, fosse, fôssemos, fôsseis, fossem
    • Future: for, fores, for, formos, fordes, forem
  • Imperative
    • sê (tu), seja (você), sejamos (nós), sede (vós), sejam (vocês)

estar

  • Non-finite forms
    • Infinitive: estar
  • Indicative
    • Present: estou, estás, est&aacute, estamos, estais, estão
  • Subjunctive
  • Imperative

Conditional and Future Imperfect

There are few irregular verbs for these tenses (only dizer, fazer, trazer, and their compounds - also haver, ter, ser, ir, pôr, estar, etc. - for the Subjunctive Future Imperfect). The Indicative Future Imperfect, Conditional and Subjunctive Future Perfect tenses are formed by adding to the infinitive the Indicative Present inflections of the auxiliary verb haver (dropping the h and av), the 2nd/3rd conjugation endings of the Preterit Imperfect and the Personal Infinitive endings, respectively. Thus, for the majority of the verbs, the Simple Personal Infinitive coincides with Subjunctive Future Imperfect.

Imperative

The Imperative for most verbs is the same as the third-person singular present indicative.

Present inflections pronunciation

In this tense, the stress fluctuates between the root and the termination. As a rule of thumb, the last radical vowel (the one that can be stressed) will retain its original pronunciation when unstressed (atonic) and change into [a], [e] (Subjunctive or Indicative 1st pers sing)/[ɛ] (Infinitive), or [o] (Subjunctive or Indicative 1st pers sing)/[ɔ] (Infinitive) - depending on the vowel in question - in case it is stressed (is in a tonic syllable). Other vowels (u, i) and nasalized sounds will probably stay unchanged. Examples: See the conjugation of comer [-u-] above, in the Indicative Present Simple. The o will assume three values [u], [o] and [ɔ]. Compare with absorver [-ɔ-]. It will be conjugated as [ɐ·ˈbsoɾ·vu], [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɨʃ], [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɨ], [ɐ·bsɔɾ·ˈve·muʃ], [ɐ·bsɔɾ·ˈvɐjʃ], [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɐ̃j]. The value [u] is not assumed in this case. This also has repercussions in the Imperative, for its inflections are constructed from the Indicative Present Simple.

See also

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