Treaty ports

From Academic Kids

This article refers to the Nanjing Treaty ports of China, for the Anglo-Irish Treaty ports see Treaty ports (Ireland).

Treaty ports were port cities opened by unequal treaties in China, Japan and Korea. The first five treaty ports were set up by Nanjing Treaty in 1842. The second group was set up following the Arrow War ended in 1860 and eventually more than 80 treaty ports were established in China.

Foreigners, who were centred in foreign sections newly built on the edge of Chinese port cities, enjoyed extraterritoriality stipulated by unequal treaties. Foreign clubs, race courses, and churches were institutionalized in major treaty ports. Besides several port areas were directly leased by foreign powers.

Japan opened two ports, Shimoda and Hakodate, in 1853 U.S.-Japan Friendship Treaty, and designated five ports, Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Hakodate, and Niigata, in 1858 U.S.-Japan Friendship and Commerce Treaty.

Major treaty ports

Leased territories

External links


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