Troika (triumvirate)

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Troika (Russian: тройка, meaning threesome) is a committee consisting of three members.

NKVD Troikas

Main article: NKVD troika.

The word became notorious in the Soviet Union during the Stalinist era: troikas replaced the normal legal system for quick persecution of dissidents or anybody accused of political crimes. This quickly turned into witchhunts, which filled the country with dread.

Other uses

The word has also been used to describe the government of Communist states, consisting of the party leader, head of government, and head of state. This was true during periods where the positions were held by three different people, and the party leader was not viewed as sole dictator.

It is used in the European Union when referring to a group composed of the previous, present and next presidents of the Council of Ministers, who sometimes work together on foreign policy initiatives.

It has also been briefly applied to the presidency of the South African Republic from 1881 to 1883, when it was jointly governed by M.W. Pretorius, Paul Kruger and P.J. Joubert.

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