Valga

From Academic Kids

Valga is a town in South Estonia and the capital of Valga County.

Valga and Valka town in the North Latvia are twin towns since 1920. The area of Valga is 16,5 km2 and that of Valka is 14,2 km2. Populations are accordingly 15 330 and 7100.

Valga is situated in the junction of roads and railways. Tallinn-Tartu-Riga railway is connected via Tapa with Tallinn-Narva-St.Petersburg magistral. Valga is an international junction of railway traffic. Since there is no railway station in Valka, the trains coming from Latvia are directed to Valga, which is the terminal of Latvian railway lines.

The distance to Tartu is 89 km, Pärnu 144 km, Tallinn 245 km, Riga 175 km and Pskov 170 km.

Since 1944 a local newspaper "Valgamaalane" is published (3 times a week). There also is a local correspondence office of Estonian Television and a local radio - "Raadio Ruut".

Valga has concluded several cooperation agreements. The nearest is an agreement (from the year 1995) with the neighbour town Valka. There are also cooperation agreements with Oakland, Maryland [1] (http://estonia.usembassy.gov/otepaa.php) town (USA) and Östhammar Municipality (Sweden). There are long-term friendly relations with Hallsberg Municipality in Sweden, Lübz town in Germany and Tornio town in Finland.

Valga is developing fast. Since the year 1996 there have been renovated several buildings, which have improved the quality of citizens' life: Central Library, Valga Stadium, Museum, Valga Hospital and Culture and Hobby Centre. Step by step the schools and kindergartens are getting modernized. In 2003, there has been put into operation a new water treatment plant, which has remarkably improved the quality of water in the town.

In the private sector there have been made large investments into trade, light industry and forestry.

Chronology

  • 1286 Valga appears for the first time in the credit register of the city of Riga.
  • 1298, 1329, 1345 Valga suffers from looting raids made by Lithuanians who are led by Grand Duke Gediminas and Algirdas during the second and third time.
  • 1481 A looting raid by Russians, the settlement burns down for the fourth time.
  • 1500 Valga, a settlement in the heart of Old Livonia that is not fortified, is chosen as the location for assembling towns' days for 36 times up to 1500.
  • 1501 During another raid by Russians the settlement gets burnt down for the fifth time.
  • 1558 During the Livonian War that bursts out the medieval settlement of Valga is completely destroyed.
  • 1584 11 June, Valga is granted the charter and Riga bylaws by Stefan Batory, the King of Poland.
  • 1590 17 April, King of Poland, Sigismund III authorizes the charter for the second time. Valga gets its city arms.
  • 1600 The first town map. There are seen 42 house properties. The town is 7 km long and 0.5 to 0.25 km wide.
  • 1626 After the Polish-Swedish War Valga becomes the subject of Sweden. On March 6, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden authorizes the existing privilege.
  • 1710 As the result of the Great Northern War, Valga is subjected under Russian rule together with the rest of Estonia.
  • 1764 5 October, Empress Catherine II authorizes the town privilege.
  • 1783 The district of Valga is formed during the "regency rule" of Catherine II.
  • 1780 First stone buildings are erected: a church, a school and county offices.
  • 1789 Landsurveyor O.S.Engell drafts the map of Valga showing 76 plots with houses.
  • 1816 The building of St. John's Church is finished.
  • 1876 Walkscher Anzeiger, the first newspaper in Valga is issued.
  • 1889 Valga Railway Station is opened. 22 July Tartu-Valga railway line is officially opened.
  • 1890 16 December Valga Temperance Society is founded.
  • 1896 Pärnu-Valga narrow-gauge railway is opened.
  • 1901 7 December together with Latvians, Estonians succeed to win the elections over Germans in Valga – the first occasion on the Estonian territory. The chemist Johannes Märtson is elected mayor.
  • 1902 In the building of Temperance Society there is founded the social society Säde. Andres Alver, the county medical officer is elected chairman. Valga-Marienburg narrow-gauge railway is opened.
  • 1908 Girls' Progymnasium is changed into Gymnasium with Marta Pärna as a principal.
  • 1909 The construction of Säde building is commenced (architect Georg Hellat)
  • 1917 A German zeppelin flies over the town and drops forty high-explosive bombs without hitting the main target -- the railway station.
  • 1918 11 January, the Council of Delegates of Valga County Workers, Soldiers and Landless Men gains power in the town. 12 February, German Army occupies Valga.
  • 1919 11 January, Valga Estonian Gymnasium is opened in 22 Kesk street. For the first time in the history of gymnasiums in Valga the teaching language is Estonian. In the end of January, 107 victims of red terrorism are found from the five mass graves around Valga, 67 people are taken away as hostages. 31 January takes place the battle at Paju and consequently Valga is freed from bolsheviks.
  • 1920 1 July, the British envoy Colonel S. G. Tallents conclusively establishes the border between Estonia and Latvia. Valga proper up to Konnaoja and Luke graveyard remains intact under Estonian rule.
  • 1921 11 February, the decree of Estonian government establishes the territory of Valga county. Valga becomes a county centre.
  • 1941 9 July, Valga is occupied by German troops.
  • 1944 19 September, in the course of heavy fighting Valga is liberated from German occupation. It is substituted by Soviet occupation.
  • 1988 Valga Protection of Antiquities Society is founded. 27 November, on the initiative of the Society, there is commemorated the beginning the Liberation War at the memorial for those killed in the war.
  • 1989 24 February, the first Estonian flag of the re-established independence period is hoisted to the flagpole of 12 Aia street.
  • 1992 24 May, the Russian army base in Valga is taken over, later on it becomes the border guard post.
  • 1993 17 October, the first free elections of the municipal council, after the restoration of independence, take place.
  • 1994 31 January, on the 75th anniversary of the battle at Paju its memorial is opened. 21-25 June, worldwide days of Valga county people take place.


External links

et:Valga lv:Valga nl:Valga ru:Валга

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