From Academic Kids

Template:IPA notice Yorb is a language of sub-Saharan Africa. The native tongue of the Yorb people, it is spoken, among other languages, in Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Sierra Leone, as well as by communities in Brazil and Cuba (where it is called Nago). It belongs to the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family, and has nearly 30 million speakers. Yorb is an isolating, tonal language with SVO syntax. While several dialects of varying degrees of mutual comprehensibility exist, there is also a standard language.

Yoruba (Yorb)
Spoken in: Nigeria, Benin, Togo, others
Region: West Africa
Total speakers: >20 million
Ranking: 49
Genetic classification: Niger-Congo

 Atlantic-Congo
  Volta-Congo
    Benue-Congo
    Defoid
     Yoruboid
      Edekiri
       Yorb

Official status
Official language of: Nigeria
Regulated by: unknown
Language codes
ISO 639-1yo
ISO 639-2yor
SILyor
See also: LanguageList of languages
Contents

Characteristics

Yorb has proven to be fruitful from a linguistic point of view. It uses a register tone system, similar to the one used by other Niger-Congo languages but unlike that of Chinese. Its vowel harmony system, extensive morphophonology, and numerous reduplicative processes are well documented and continue to be the subject of linguistic analysis.

Writing system

Alphabet

Yorb is written in a Latin alphabet modified by the use of the digraph gb and certain diacritics, including a vertical line set under the letter (E̩/e̩, O̩/o̩, S̩/s̩). As there are no precomposed glyphs for these in Unicode, the line is often replaced by a dot (Ẹ/ẹ, Ọ/ọ, Ṣ/ṣ).

ABDEFGGbHIJKLMNOPRSTUWY
abdefggbhijklmnoprstuwy

The Latin letters c, q, v, x, z are not used.

The pronunciation of the letters without diacritics corresponds more or less to their International Phonetic Alphabet equivalents. The line underneath vowels indicates an open vowel, traditionally pronounced with the root of the tongue retracted (so is pronounced with an IPA and with an IPA ). represents a postalveolar consonant like the English sh, and GB the labial-velar stop , in which both consonants are pronounced simultaneously rather than sequentially.

Tone markings

In addition to the vertical bars, three further diacritics are used on vowels and syllabic nasal consonants to indicate the language's tones: an acute accent for the high tone, a grave accent for the low tone, and an optional macron for the middle tone. These are used in addition to the line in and . When more than one tone is used in one syllable, the vowel can either be written once for each tone (for example, * for a vowel [o] with tone rising from low to high) or, more rarely in current usage, combined into a single accent. In this case, a caron is used for the rising tone (so the previous example would be written ǒ) and a tilde for other possibilities.

ĀĒẸ/E̩Ẹ́/̩Ẹ̀/̩Ẹ̄/Ē̩ĪŌỌ/O̩Ọ́/̩Ọ̀/̩Ọ̄/Ō̩ŪṢ/S̩
āēẹ/e̩ẹ́/̩ẹ̀/̩ẹ̄/ē̩īōọ/o̩ọ́/̩ọ̀/̩ọ̄/ō̩ūṣ/s̩

External links

Template:InterWiki


Template:Nc-lang-stubde:Yoruba (Sprache) fr:Yoruba ja:ヨルバ語 nl:Yoruba (taal) pt:Lngua Yoruba tr:Yoruba wa:Yorouba

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