Battle of Leipzig

From Academic Kids

Template:Battlebox The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Following the disastrous campaign in Russia and defeats in the Peninsular War, the anti-French forces had cautiously regrouped as the Sixth Coalition, comprising Britain, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Prussia, Austria, Sweden and certain smaller German states.

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Napoleon and Poniatowski at Leipzig, painted by January Suchodolski.

Napoleon sought to re-establish his hold in Germany, winning two hard-fought victories at Ltzen, on May 2 and Bautzen, on May 20-21 over Russo-Prussian forces. The victories led to a brief armistice but this lasted even less time than usual. The Allies rejoined the conflict under the command of Gebhard von Blcher, Crown Prince Charles of Sweden (Bernadotte) and Karl Schwarzenberg. The Allies' tactics, outlined in the Trachenburg Plan were to avoid clashes with Napoleon but to seek meetings with his marshals, which led to victories at Grossbeeren, Kulm, Katzbach and at Dennewitz.

Marshal Nicolas Oudinot failed to capture Berlin with his army of 120,000 and Napoleon was forced to withdraw westwards due to the threat to the north, crossing the Elbe in late September and organizing his forces around Leipzig to protect his supply lines and meet the Allies. Napoleon arranged his army around Leipzig, but concentrating his force from Taucha through Sttteritz (where Napoleon placed his command) and then curving south-west to Lindenau. The Prussians advanced from Wartenburg, the Austrians and Russians from Dresden and the Swedish force from the north. In total, the French had around 190,000 soldiers and the Allies almost 330,000 with both sides having significant artillery - in total there were over two and a half thousand pieces of ordinance on the field.

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Memorial to the Battle of the Nations, Leipzig

The battle began on the 16th with an attack by 78,000 Allied troops from the south and 54,000 from the north, they achieved little and were soon forced back. The following day both forces merely skirmished as reinforcements arrived and were organized. The French however received only 14,000 additional troops, whereas 145,000 arrived for the Allies, dramatically bolstering their forces. On the 18th the Allies launched a huge assault from all sides, in over nine hours of fighting the French were slowly forced back towards Leipzig, both sides suffered heavy casualties and only the bravery of the French troops prevented a breakthrough. Napoleon saw that the battle could only end in defeat and on the night of the 18th-19th began to withdraw the majority of his army across the river Elster. The retreat went well until early afternoon when the single bridge was mistakenly destroyed, leaving the French rearguard to be caught by the Allies or to drown trying to swim the river.

Total casualties are uncertain, estimates range from 80,000 to 110,000 killed or wounded from both sides. Taking an estimate of 95,000 total, the Allies lost 55,000 and the French 40,000, with around 30,000 French taken prisoner. Amongst the casualties was the French marshal, Jzef Antoni Poniatowski who had only received his marshal's baton the previous day. The battle ended the French Empire east of the Rhine and brought a number of German states over to the Allies.

The course of the battle in the city of Leipzig is marked by numerous monuments and the 45 Apel-stones that mark important lines of the French and allied bei Leipzig fr:Bataille de Leipzig ja:ライプツィヒの戦い nl:Slag bij Leipzig pl:Bitwa pod Lipskiem sv:Slaget vid Leipzig (1813)


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