C

From Academic Kids

This page is about the letter C itself. See their respective pages for the programming language C and its derivatives C++, C#, and . For the defunct computer magazine, see C (magazine). For Einstein's constant c, see speed of light. For other specific uses, see below.

Template:AZ C is the third letter of the Roman alphabet.

In the Etruscan language, plosive consonants had no distinctive voicing, so they took over Greek Γ (Gamma) to write their /k/. In the beginning, the Romans used C for both /k/ and /g/, only later adding a horizontal bar at right-center to produce G. It is possible but uncertain that C represented only /g/ at an even earlier time, while K might have been used for /k/.

Some scholars claim that the Semitic ג (gmel) pictured a camel, but most assume it was probably gaml (a throwing stick/boomerang).

Contents

Phonetic use

/k/ developed palatal and velar allophones in Latin, probably due to Etruscan influence. The Romance languages and English have a common feature inherited from Vulgar Latin where C takes on either a "hard" or "soft" value depending on the following vowel. In English and French, C takes the "hard" value [[voiceless velar plosive|]] finally and before A, O, and U, and the "soft" value [[voiceless alveolar fricative|]] before E, I, or Y. Romance languages obey similar rules, but the soft value is different in several languages, taking on /θ/ in European Castilian and (like English CH) in Italian and Romanian.

Other languages use C with different values, such as regardless of position in Welsh, in Fijian, in Turkish, Tatar, Azeri, in Czech, Croatian, Esperanto, Hungarian, Romanized Chinese.

There are several common digraphs with C, the most common being CH, which in some languages such as German is far more common than C alone. In English, CH most commonly takes the value , but can take the value or [[voiceless velar fricative|]], usually when transliterating Greek Χ or Hebrew. CH takes various values in other languages, such as [[Voiceless palatal fricative|]], , or in German, [[Voiceless postalveolar fricative|]] in French, in Italian, in Mandarin Chinese, and so forth. CK, with the value , is often used after short vowels in Germanic languages such as English, German and Swedish (but some other Germanic languages use KK instead, such as Dutch and Norwegian). The digraph CZ is found in Polish and CS in Hungarian, both representing .

As a phonetic symbol, lowercase c is the International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive, and capital C is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative.

Alternate representations

Charlie represents the letter C in the NATO phonetic alphabet.

In international Morse code the letter C is DahDitDahDit: -  - 

In Braille the letter C is represented as (in Unicode), the dot pattern,

XX
..
..

Computing

In Unicode the capital C is codepoint U+0043 and the lowercase c is U+0063.

The ASCII code for capital C is 67 and for lowercase c is 99; or in binary 01000011 and 01100011, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital C is 195 and for lowercase c is 131.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "C" and "c" for upper and lower case respectively.

Meanings for C

See also

Template:AZsubnavaf:C bs:C ca:C cs:C da:C de:C als:C el:C es:C eo:C fr:C gl:C ko:C it:C he:C la:C hu:C nl:C ja:C no:C nn:C pl:C pt:C ro:C simple:C sl:C fi:C sv:C tl:C vi:C tr:C yo:C zh:C

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