Constitution of Medina

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The Constitution of Medina is the earliest known written constitution. It was drafted in 622, and concerns the rights and responsibilities of the Muslim, Jewish, and other Arabic and tribal communities of Medina during the war between that city and its neighbours. The most important points with respect to the geographically close Jews were:

  1. The Jews will profess their religion, and the Muslims theirs.
  2. The Jews shall be responsible for their expenditure, and the Muslims for theirs.
  3. If attacked by a third party, each shall come to the assistance of the other.
  4. Each party shall hold counsel with the other. Mutual relation shall be founded on righteousness; sin is totally excluded.
  5. Neither shall commit sins to the prejudice of the other.
  6. The wronged party shall be aided.
  7. The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers.
  8. Madinah shall remain sacred and inviolable for all that join this treaty. Should any disagreement arise between the signatories to this treaty, then Muhammad shall settle the dispute.
  9. The signatories to this treaty shall boycott Quraish commercially; they shall also abstain from extending any support to them.
  10. Each shall contribute to defending Madinah, in case of a foreign attack, in its respective area.
  11. This treaty shall not hinder either party from seeking lawful revenge.
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