Deccan sultanates

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The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. They became independent states during the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate: Bijapur in 1489, Ahmednagar and Berar in 1491, Bidar in 1492, and Golconda in 1512. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year.

Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the battle of Talikota. In 1572, after a coup in Berar, Ahmednagar invaded and conquered it. In 1619 Bidar was annexed by Bijapur. The sultanates were later conquered by the Mughal Empire; Berar was stripped from Ahmednagar in 1595, Ahmednagar was completely taken between 1616 and 1632, and Golconda and Bijapur conquered by Aurangzeb's 1686-7 campaign.

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