Economy of Switzerland

From Academic Kids

Despite a dearth of natural resources, the Swiss economy is among the world's most advanced and prosperous. Per capita income is among the highest in the world, but standards of living are not as high as one would expect because protectionism has risen wages and prices alike. During most of the 1990s, the Swiss economy was Western Europe's weakest, with annual GDP growth averaging 0% between 1991 and 1997 but beginning in late 1997, the economy steadily gained momentum until peaking in the year 2000 with 3.0% growth in real terms. Being so closely linked to the economies of western Europe and the United States, Switzerland has not been able to escape the slowdown being experienced in these countries. In 2001 the rate of growth dropped to 0.9%, and in 2003 the real GDP dropped by 0.5%. The recent economic slowdown has had a noticeable impact on the labor market. The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate rose from 1.6% in June 2001 to 3.7% in October 2004, although still well below the European Union (EU) unemployment average (8.9%).

The number of bankruptcies in Switzerland during the first quarter 2003 reached an alarming rate unseen since 1996, reaching 1,157 companies, 21.9% more than a year ago. Experts from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology believe, nevertheless, that economic performance will remain solid in 2004 and that GDP will increase by 1.8% in 2004, and by 1.9% in 2005. Switzerland ranks 18th among the main trading partners of the U.S. worldwide, imports more U.S. products and services than does Spain. The Swiss economy earns roughly half of its corporate earnings from the export industry, and about 70% of Swiss exports are destined for the EU market.

The United States is the second-largest importer (10.6%) of Swiss goods after Germany (21.2%). It on the other hand exports more to Switzerland each year than to all the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe combined. In addition, the United States is the largest foreign investor in Switzerland, and conversely, the primary destination of Swiss foreign investment. It is estimated that 200,000 American jobs depend on Swiss foreign investments. Total U.S.-Swiss bilateral trade, nevertheless, decreased by 12% to $17.16 billion during 2002 compared to the previous year.

The third full year of cooperation under the U.S.-Swiss Joint Economic Commission (JEC) (2002-03) invigorated further bilateral ties by recording achievements in a number of areas covering anti-terrorism financing and the prevention of terrorist acts. That includes further consultations on anti-money laundering procedures and the seizure of al-Qaeda accounts, and as well as the development of a code of conduct for the pharmaceutical industry, led initially by Swiss and U.S. companies to prevent the spread of technology falling into the hands of terrorists. U.S. and Swiss environmental chiefs also met on January 24, 2003, and discussed possible areas of cooperation in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Both countries also approved the JEC agenda for 2003, which includes counter-terrorism, the nonproliferation and export control regimes, bilateral trade and investment issues, and advances in science and technology.

Trade has been the key to prosperity in Switzerland. The country is dependent upon export markets to generate income while dependent upon imports for raw materials and to expand the range of goods and services available in the country. Switzerland has relatively liberal trade and investment policies — with the important exception of agricultural protectionism, one of the strictest in the world, causing a high cost of living — and a conservative fiscal policy. The Swiss legal system is highly developed, commercial law is well defined, and solid laws and policies protect investments. The Swiss franc is one of the world's soundest currencies, and the country is known for its high standard of banking and financial services.

One-fourth of the country's full-time workers are unionized. In general, labor/management relations are good, mostly characterized by a willingness on both sides to settle disputes by negotiations rather than by labor action. About 600 collective bargaining agreements exist today in Switzerland and are regularly renewed without major problems. However, the mood is changing. The massive layoffs that resulted from a combination of the global economic slowdown, major management scandals and different attitudes from foreign investors have strained the traditional Swiss "labor peace." Swiss trade unions encouraged strikes against several companies, including the national airline Swiss, Coca-Cola, and Orange (the French Telecom-owned cellular telephony operator), but total days lost to strikes remain among the lowest in the OECD. Uncertainties concerning under-funded pension funds, and the prospect of a potential hike in the retirement age have stirred further street protests.

The machinery, metals, electronics, and chemicals sectors are world-renowned for precision and quality. Together they account for well over half of Swiss export revenues. In agriculture, Switzerland is about 60% self-sufficient. Only 7.5% of the remaining imports originated from the U.S. Swiss farmers are one of the most highly protected and subsidized producer group in the world.

OECD estimates show that Switzerland is subsidizing more than 70% of its agriculture, compared to 35% in the EU. According to the "2007 Agricultural Program" recently adopted by the Swiss Parliament, subsidies will increase by SF 63 million, thus totaling SF 14.092 billion from 2004 to 2007. Mill quotas, however, will be abolished starting in 2009. This has a counterpart in illegal immigration — since at one hand agriculture ends up retaining in the fields a labour force which would be needed in the other sectors of the economy, and on the other people from competitive agricultural countries are left without work in their native countries — and in high costs of living — not only food but also rents, since much land needed for human occupation is retained by farms.

Tourism, banking, engineering, and insurance are significant sectors of the economy and heavily influence the country's economic policies. Swiss trading companies have unique marketing expertise in many parts of the world, including eastern Europe, the Far East, Africa, and the Middle East. Not only does Switzerland have a highly developed tourism infrastructure (making it a good market for tourism-related equipment and services), the Swiss also are intrepid travelers. Per capita, more Swiss visit the United States every year than from any other country. Tourism is the most important U.S. export to Switzerland (earning almost $1.5 billion). In 2002, more than 300,000 Swiss came to the United States as tourists.

The EU is Switzerland's largest trading partner, and economic and trade barriers between them are minimal again with the notable exception of agriculture. In the wake of the Swiss voters' rejection of the European Economic Area Agreement in 1992, the Swiss Government set its sights on negotiating bilateral sectoral agreements with the EU. After more than 4 years of negotiations, an agreement covering seven sectors (research, public procurement, technical barriers to trade, agriculture, civil aviation, land transport, and the free movement of persons) was achieved at the end of 1998. Parliament officially endorsed the so-called "Bilaterals" in 1999, and the Swiss people approved them in a referendum in May 2000. The agreements, which had to be ratified by the European Parliament as well as legislatures in all 15 EU member states, entered into force on June 1, 2002. Switzerland has so far attempted to mitigate possible adverse effects of nonmembership by conforming many of its regulations, standards, and practices to EU directives and norms.

A notable side effect of particularly the bilateral agreements on the free movements of persons was to practically reserve nearly all of Switzerland's annual immigration quotas to Europeans, thus nearly ending the possibilities of non-Europeans to immigrate. Non-Europeans who still lacked permanent residency and also happened to lose their jobs after the entering into force of the agreements were thus indirectly prevented by the treaty from getting new jobs and remaining on the country, with the obvious exceptions of illegals (travailleurs au noir).

The Swiss Government has embarked on a second round of bilateral negotiations with the EU (known as Bilaterals II). Talks on the four dossiers of customs fraud, environment, statistics, and trade in processed agricultural products started in July 2001. Negotiations on pension funds, student and youth exchange programs, media, the taxation of savings as well as police and judicial cooperation (under the Schengen and Dublin accords) also are underway. While most issues are not really contentious, talks on customs fraud are moving slowly. Police and judicial cooperation and the taxation of savings also are controversial, mostly because of possible adverse effects on Swiss bank secrecy.

Swiss and EU finance ministers agreed in June 2003 that Swiss banks would to levy a withholding tax on EU citizens' savings income. The tax would increase gradually to 35% by 2011, with 75% of the funds being transferred to the EU. Recent estimates value EU capital inflows to Switzerland to $8.3 billion.

The Swiss federal government is deeply divided over EU membership as its long-term goal, and in a March 2001 referendum more than 70% of the voters rejected rapid steps toward EU membership. The issue of EU-membership is, therefore, likely to be shelved for several years, if not a decade, and since there is a deep rift between popular sentiment on one side and the political and mass media lite on the other, it is not likely to be resolved soon.

Switzerland is a member of a number of international economic organizations, including the UN, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2004)

Labor force: 4.2 million (956,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian) (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 72%, industry 24%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2003 est.)

revenues: $47.2 billion
expenditures: $50.0 billion (2003)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, medical technology

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SFR) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SFR) per US$1 - 1.22 (May 2005), 1.5878 (January 2000), 1.5022 (1999), 1.4498 (1998), 1.4513 (1997), 1.2360 (1996), 1.1825 (1995)

See also

External links


European Free Trade Association (EFTA) EFTA logo
Iceland | Liechtenstein | Norway | Switzerland

Template:WTObg:Стопанство на Швейцария

de:Schweizer Wirtschaft fr:conomie de la Suisse pt:Economia da Sua


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