From Academic Kids


Jinan (Template:Zh-stpw) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Shandong province in China. It is recognized as the center for economy, politics, culture, commerce, education and transport for the whole province of Shandong. The Yellow River flows though the city. Its population in 2002 was 5.49 million.

Jinan, Shandong
Abbreviation: 济 (pinyin: Ji)
Missing image

Origin of Name济 - Ji, From Ji Waters, and old river
南 - Nan, South
Put together - South of Ji Waters
Seat of Government Licheng District
Area 8154km²
- Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 3rd
 - Total (Year)
 - per capita
Ranked 3rd
138.3 billion
put miscellaneous info, like tree, flower, language, religion etc. here
Administration Type Sub-provincial city
CPC Jinan Committee SecretaryJiang Daming
MayorXie Yutang
County-level divisions10
Township-level divisions231
Postal Code250000-251600
Area Code531
License Plate Prefix鲁A


Geography & Climate

Jinan lies in the north-western part of Shandong province. Located in the warm temperate continental monsoon climate zone, Jinan has four distinct seasons. The city is dry and rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.2°C, and the annual rainfall is around 675 mm. January is the coldest and driest month, the monthly averages are -5.4°C for the daily minimum temperature, 3.6°C for the daily maximum temperature, and 6.6 mm for the rainfall. July is the warmest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 23.5°C, 32.6°C, and 190.9 mm (Source: The Global Historical Climatology Network, version 2 beta, covering 874 months between 1916 and 1990).


Jinan has been recognized by the State Council of China as a worthy cultural-historic city. The ancient site on which Jinan was erected was probably settled as early as the Shang Dynasty, 9,000 years ago. From its location, south of the ancient Ji Waters, comes Jinan's name, literally meaning South of Ji. Jinan slowly developed during the Zhou Dynasty; by the Jin Dynasty, Buddhism began to flourish in the area, and various temples were erected making Jinan the religious center of Shandong at the time. During the Northern Song Dynasty, Jinan became a prefecture and was called "The nation of literature and the place of wealth." Jinan being one of the biggest tax-collecting zones in the kingdom.

Jinan was home to China's oldest trademark bronze plate. This shows the fast industrial and commercial development in Jinan at the time. The "Two An's of Jinan" created a lot of famous poetry and literature during this period, and became famous representatives of China's literary elite. The city continued to develop throughout the Ming and Qing Dynasties, becoming one of the most important trading centers in its region of China by the late Qing.

Industrial development thrived before the Japanese Invasion of China in 1933, during the times of the Republic. The city was damaged during World War II and was later rebuilt to a large extent. Since Deng Xiaoping's reforms, Jinan has strived to develop into a modern metropolis. Trade has opened up and Jinan's former industrial strengths have resurfaced.


The economic development of Jinan only came to speed since Deng Xiaoping's 1978 reforms, opening up to the outside world. The focus was on improving medium and large sized enterprises, thus improving the level of industrial competition. Technological developments were improved greatly. Jinan is known for various famous-brand products that come from the city. Jinan is moving towards specializing in industries such as social insurance, telecommunications, information, and tourism for economic development.

Agriculture and the rural economy also got a huge boost since 1978. The old way of operating agricultre was being replaced by a newer, more modern method. More and more enterprises are seeking to rural area to do more business. The forest and fishing industries also thrive in the region. It is one of the top producers in China of cotton, peanuts, and fruit.

Economic growth has been fast, at a pace of nearly 12% a year in the growth of GDP since 1990. The GDP per capita was 25192 (US$3042) in 2003, ranked no. 38 among 659 Chinese cities.


Jinan's 2005 estimated population is 5.69 million in the whole city-jurisdiction area, with a total of 2.54 million living in urban areas. The population is predominantly Han (98.3%), with very small portions of Hui and Manchu Chinese.


Jinan is known for its Lu Cai (鲁菜), sometimes hailed as China's No.1 Cuisine, but normally considered salty and oily by westerners. People are gradually speaking more Mandarin in Jinan, although many elder residents still have strong Shandong dialect elements in their speech.


Jinan is the hub of transport and communication network for Shandong province. The construction of the Jinan-Qingdao Expressway, the Jinan-Wangcun, Jinan-Weishan, Jinan-Handan and Jinan-Dezhou highway has formed a network connecting Jinan with the rest of the province and the country as a whole. Jinan Airport provides airline access to all of China, with more than 30 routes including to Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Fuzhou and other major Chines cities. It continues as a major crossroad for the Chinese railway system, as it is in the middle of the Jing-hu Railway and at the end of the Jiao-Ji Railway. Water travel on the Yellow River makes Jinan an important shipping center.


Jinan is known for its beautiful natural sites, and is one of the greatest tourist destinations in Shandong. Jinan boasts a series of old and childhood homes of politicians, philosophers, dynastic officials, and artists. Furthermore, Jinan's picturesque scenery by the lake and clear waters that flow in and around the city make it more attractive to tourists -- a lot of this was reflected by famous Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu. There are more than a few natural scenery sites in Jinan. To the south is the famous Tai Shan, one of the four "great Chinese mountains". To the north are scenic blue-colored mountains, beside the Yellow River. Inside the city, artifacts, monasteries, temples and museums are everywhere. Jinan is also known for its natural springs.

Tourist attractions include:


Jinan, being the educational center of Shandong province, has a host of eminent high-level educational institutions within its area.



  • Jinan University (济南大学)
  • Shandong Normal University (山东师范大学)
  • Shangdon Institute of Architecture and Engineering (山东建筑工程学院)
  • Shandong Jiaotong University (山东交通学院)
  • Shandong Economic University (山东经济学院)
  • Shandong Finance Institute (山东财政学院)
  • Shandong University of Chinese Traditional Medicine (山东中医药大学)
  • Shandong College of Arts (山东艺术学院)
  • Shandong College of Arts and Design (山东工艺美术学院)
  • Shandong Physical Education Institute (山东体育学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.


See also:

Template:Shandongde:Jinan ja:済南 no:Jinan pt:Jinan zh:济南


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