Napoleon II of France

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Napoleon II, the King of Rome

Napoleon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte (March 20, 1811 -July 22, 1832), Duke of Reichstadt, was briefly the second Emperor of the French.

His Majesty Napoleon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, King of Rome, Prince Imperial of France was the son of Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. He was titled as HM King of Rome, which Napoléon I declared was the title of the heir-apparent (though it was only a title, and if he came of age, he still would not actually rule).

Three years after his birth in Paris, the First French Empire - to which he was heir - collapsed, and Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated the throne in favour of his infant son, who was taken by the empress to Chateau Blois in April 1814. In 1815, after his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon again abdicated in favour of his son.

The Chamber of Representatives and Chamber of Peers recognised him as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication (22 June, 1815), but the entrance of the Allies into Paris (7 July) put an end to this short-lived regime. Despite his nominal reign, he is not normally referred to as "Napoleon II" except by Bonapartists who also call him the King of Rome. Nevertheless, the next Napoleon to come to the throne of France took the name Napoleon III in deference to him.

After 1815, Napoleon was a virtual captive in Austria. He was awarded the title of Duke of Reichstadt in 1818. He died of tuberculosis at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on July 22, 1832. In 1940 his remains were transferred, as a gift to France from Adolf Hitler, from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris, where he now rests beside his father.

He was also known as "L'Aiglon", or "The Eaglet". Edmond Rostand wrote a play, L'Aiglon (play) about his life.

Serbian composer, Petar Stojanović composed an operetta " Napoleon II: Herzog von Reichstadt ", premiered in Vienna in the 1920s.


Preceded by:
Napoléon I
(Emperor of the French)
Head of State of France
(Emperor of the French)
(June 22 - July 7, 1815)
Succeeded by:
Louis XVIII
(King of France)
de:Franz Herzog von Reichstadt

es:Napoleón II de Francia fr:Napoléon II hu:II. Napóleon nl:Napoleon II ja:ナポレオン2世 pl:Napoleon II pt:Napoleão II de França sv:Napoleon II av Frankrike zh:拿破仑二世

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