Sistan and Baluchistan

From Academic Kids

Map showing Sistan and Baluchistan in Iran

Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the southeast of the country, bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan and its capital is Zahedan, with a population of 420,000 inhabitants.

The province is the largest province in Iran, with an area of 181,600 sq km It is also one of the most underdeveloped, desolate and poor regions of Iran.

Legendary land of Sistan & Baluchistan is consisted of three parts : Sistan, Sarhad and Makran. Present Sistan covers northern part of the province , covering Zabol , Sarhad covers Khash and Zahedan and Makran area covers Iranshahr, Sarbaz, Saravan, Nikshahr and Chabahar.



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According to the Avesta (Zoroasterís holy book), Ormazd has created Sistan as the eleventh land.Foundation of Sistan (Zabol) has attributed to Garshasb who named It Zarang, at first and has changed into Zabol presently Baluchistan had been known as "meka" In the old historical documents and as "Gadrozial" in Heredoctís writings, Greek historian. After he decline of the Achaemenid dynasty by Alexander , he passed through this area when he was returning from India. After domination of Arabs over Sassanid dynasty, in second Caliphís age, most of the native people adhered to Islam.


Khash is the best climate area of the province because itís higher than other townships and is neighbor to Taftan (Iran's only semi-active volcano), highest peak of the Baluchistan, at the north . In addition to Khash, Chabahar poor has vernal climate because of nearness to the tropic of cancer and the equator area. Temperature changes in different seasons are little and summers are unnoticeable and so in falls, too. The trees are forever green during the year. Luxuriance of the trees has been caused to liken for seasons to spring so it has been named as Chahar Bahar (for seasons) and then Chabahar. Khash and Chabahar are of the best climate and most beautiful areas of the province. Iranshahr, Zabol and Bahookalat areas enjoy desert climate, Zahedan containing semi desert condition and mountainous area of Bamposht in south of Saravan and along that towards east to the mounts of Bashagerd enjoys mild semi-desert climate. With consideration of influence on the province climate because of Indian seasonal conditions, specially since October to April, when the most tourist poles are stagnate because of cold weather, Sistan & Baluchistan entertains tourists and entertains tourists & Baluchistan entertains tourists and interested people of nature with nice weather.

Famous Sistan winds

This province is at the exposure of different seasonal winds which most important of them are:

  • 120-Rouzeh Wind (Lavar): this wind follows the seasonal winds of the Indian Ocean what blows in the direction of northeast to Southwest in Sistan (Zabol) area. With the speed of 110/120 km/h, this wind blows during June to September.The difference between he air pressures of Afghanistanís mountains and Sistanís plain intensify this airflow.
  • Haftom Wind (Gavkosh) : Itís a very cold winter wind such a manner causes loss of life and property some years.
  • Nambi or Jonoub Wind : This wind blows from south during the year and bring steam of the Oman Sea What is useful for agriculture.
  • Damp and Seasonal Winds of the Indian Ocean: These winds blow from southeast of Baluchisan in summer and causes severe rains.
  • Shomal or Gourich Wind: this wind blows from north to south which makes the weather mild in summers, and cold in winters.


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A Baluch girl

Sistan and Baluchistan has a population of 2.1 million according to latest census. In the south and west of Sistān and Balūchestān, the people are mostly Balōchi and speak the Baluchi language. The name Balūchestān means "Land of the Balōchi" in Persian. Similarly, the Persian name Sistān comes from the Old Persian Sakastāna, meaning "Land of the Saka". Itís also the birthplace of Rustam Dastan,Shahnamehís epical hero. Ayatollah Sistani is from Sistān; he currently resides in Najaf, Iraq. Master Shirmohammad Espandar, from Bampour of Iranshahr is the sole donelist in the world who has achieved honorary doctorate of the France University.


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Balouchi musicians

Folk music of Sistan & Baluchisan is of arts that because of special provinceís conditions, more than other province, make the happy times of this land ardent during the long years by local instruments like Gheychak, viol, bonjo, lute, Doholack and percussion instruments like tub & jug, kettledrum and oboe. Different kinds of folk music of the province are epical, chamber, mystical and party which state sadness, gladness, epics and devoted morale, virtue, compact of loyalty, patriotism and hospitality of the areaís people.


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A fine example of Baluchi coinwork

Most important handicrafts of the province are Baluchi needlework, rug and small carpet, coinwork, mat weaving, pottery, jewel-making, turnery, sackcloth-weaving (black veil) , raw silkwork, traditional cloth-weaving and instrument making. Among these , needlework because of fineness, variation and different usages, rug and small carpet because of agriculture brisk with high quality and beautiful patterns, coinwork because of using in wedding and celebrations and of variation, pottery because of being handmade with long background and mat weaving because of ampleness of wild palm and variation of products have special place and manifestation.

Coinwork: Because of trimming usages, Coinwork is the second popular art of the area and has special place in Baluchistanís handicrafts. It is made of small pieces of mirror, tinsel, glass beads, shell, glass button , ribbon swing, cloth and silver coins. These products are used in ceremoines and wedding, for covering of camelís neck and for brideís bedcover. These beautiful combinations of innovation and variation, have advocators and different types of them are available in handicraft shops.

Pottery: Baluchisanís pottery is known by Kalpoorgan, a village near to city of Saravan. This art has a long background and dates back to 3000 years ago. These ceramic products are made of clay and stone, which are exploited of the areaís mines, And have many local and foreign adminers.

Needlework: This art has a long background and counts as combination of talent, thought and ability of Balouchiís artistic hand eye. Mostly, women and girls make these products and basically, use as trimmings of dresses. Today, different kinds of needle-lace are made like: tablecloth, prayer rug, prying seal cloth cover, pillow, cushion, napery for marriage ceremony, womenís dress, cover and bed light. These productions are presented in shops and galleries and with a flourished market have many admirers among Europeans.

Mat weaving: These kinds of handicrafts are usually made of palm leaf or, in local dialect, "Dazopish" , generally in villages of Baluchistan. Mat rope, basket, prayer carpet, small rug, pendant, shoe and cap are different products of this art. Most of these handicrafts are used in the area, except the rope hat used in furniture making. A kind of curtain is woven by a local reed, known as "Loukh" in some villages and border of hamoon lake, too.

Rug: Lifestyle of the Baluchistanís people is talented for sheep and goat breeding and so, rug weaving is counted as one of the ancient handicrafts of the province. Traditional patterns of these high quality rugs are well known.

Historical attractions

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Burnt city , Zabol
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Bampuor Castle
  • Burnt City (Shahr-e Soukhteh)

Itís complex of ancient monuments where is located in 56 km. To zabol. Itís one of the largest and richest ancient regions in eastern Iranian plateau. This city, during its 1000-year life, was counted as a mirror of ancient Iranian civilization and rich culture since the year 3200 to 21008.c. and also largest city and civilization center of east world.

  • Dahaneh-ye Gholaman

With an area of 100 hectares, his complex belongs to the Achaemenid era and is placed in 44 km. To southeast of Zabol in area of Hamoon Lake. Gholaman (means slaves) is the name of a natural strait in this area and it is said that it has been one of the entrances of Iranian plateau where slave merchants traded. According to the reports of Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, this place has been known as shahr-e Zarrin in Hellenics era, and then as Zarak, Zaraka and Zaranj. This ancient area is near to the pools of Nimeh well in Sistan and talented to change into a tourist place.

  • Mount Khajeh

With a height of 900 m. like an island, this historical and valuable attraction is placed in middle of Hamoon Lake. There are ruins of a fire temple and enormous palace at the top of his mount belong to the first century A.D. Sassanid and Parthian eras. In the south part of this mount, there is a muddy temple which is known as Kouchakchal Ganjeh. This construction is worship place of Nahid (Anahita) and is counted as a girl castle. This mount and the ancient monuments, belong to the different eras, which are located in its slope with beautiful landscapes of Hamoon lake, are of the superior tourist attractions of this province.

  • Imamzadeh Gholamrasool Mausoleum

In the east side of Chabahar, there is a high dome-shaped mausoleum, which belongs to Timurid period. Every year, this monument receives many Iranian and Indian pilgrims for religious rites, from Jan 29, for 10 days.

Natural attractions

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Kuh-e-Taftan with height of over 4000 m
  • Sarbaz valley

Sarbaz valley and river are very beautiful and green country area where are counted as the beautiful natural & tourist attractions, at the confluence of palm groves and paddy fields, with short-muzzle crocodile, that is one of scarcest species of wild life.

  • Ecosystem of Marin Forests

Like other tropical areas, what attracts viewers is a kind of plant formation which is semi-floating along shore and sea. Theses marine forests are seen at narrow strip of costal shelters, in the shores of tropical areas among estuaries and lagoons and proper depression of riverís mouth between ebb and flow. These floating forests with special situation are know as Mangrove, Swampy or Tiding Forests. In the flow time, top of the trees which are higher than salt water level are evident only, and lower parts, stem and breath canals, are in the ebb time. These forests are described as costal plantations and forever-green forests, too. At the costal strip of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, Hara forests are the last extent of Mangrove forestís dispersion in the southeast of Asia. These forests consisting one or two, sometimes, types of Mangrove and are the most luxuriant type of Hara.

  • Hara Forests

At the 25.11 to 25.16 latitude and 61.28 to 61.35 longitudes, with an area of 200 Hectares, Hara forests of Gowatr bay are placed in the southeast extremity of Iran, in the political limits of Chabahar township, 150 km. To east of Chabahar. This beautiful place including Bahoo estuary has registered in the list of Ramsar Convention as the twentieth international march. However Hara forests are uniform and including no plant species but because of ecotony and crossing condition, they are consisting various kinds of wildlife. These forests are common gift of land and sea and protection of hem, as the valuable and sensitive environments, have been emphasized in the all of the world, specially from viewpoint of tourism. Mangrove forests are so luxuriant and count as the one of the important centers of natural life. Some of the most important outputs of these forests are: protection of coral stone waters and providing environment for aquatics, birds and other animals. This ecosystem protects shores against erosion of dreadful waves of the sea

  • Gelfeshan

There are the hills of mud- emitter located in 90 km. To Bandar Ėe Kenarak in Kahir plain, befor tang village a flat area. One of these three, which is like a volcano, is active and the others have been inactive since a few years ago. There are craters with he diameter of a few centimeters on the peak of these hills and gray mud comes out of the active oneís crater and descends down towards the slopes, alternately. The alternation circle is every 10-15 minutes with vibration of he earth. The amount of this mud is 3-5 liter per time and craters position at the peak or slope of the hills are change, usually. A sound like shot is heard at the time of emitter, occasionally. This phenomenon is one of the other attractions of the province .

  • Khach

It is an old city which its foundation date becks to King Nader age, including vats and fertile plains and is one of the agriculture poles of the area . famous peak of Taftan, The sole half-active volcano of Iran, seasonal ponds of pleasant heights next to the Taftan as the name of "Sardarya" Heydarabad castle, minaret of Jaameí mosque, faÁade of towhidieh mosque with Indian stuccos and decorations, old tree of Pabid village (1200- year old), Sangan old tree, Haftad mullah cemetery, historical cemeteries about Taftan peak and watermillsÖ are important tourist attractions of the Khash township.

  • Taftan Peak

Taftan Peak is one of the important views and attractions of the province. From viewpoint of geology in quaternary, there have been the volcanoes in Iran which their peaks are constitute important heights, today. Presently, some of those volcanoes are in sulfur producing stage and so steam and sulfuric

Gases come out from their craters. Mount Taftan is one of these volcanoes and located in northeast of Iran, 50 km. To Khash Township. Because of existence of spas mineral waters, this area has special privileges, like; Jamchin, Amani, Barab and Barabak spas which are located in northwest of mount Taftan, in the west of Taftan and extremity of Bidester River, in the west of Taftan and north of Tamandan village and in the northeast of Taftan . Taftan peak with the height of 4050 m. causes pleasant climate in Khash and at the neighborhood. As other important privileges, Khash enjoys more rainfall in comparison with other places of the province and rich plan cover at the around because of high altitude.

All of these features turn Taftan into one of the most interesting natural attractions of the province and attracts many of the interested people from other areas, specially mountain climbers, every year.

External links

es:SistŠn y BaluchistŠn

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